Philippe Halsman - foremost black and white portrait photographer
Black and white photo papers that modulate contrast
A working acquaintance with developers - with their ingredients, capabilities, limitations - is useful insurance against bad negatives. Such understanding helps the black and white photographer know what to expect of a given formulation, how to alter those results if need be, and how to choose, from dozens on the market, one to suit his taste.
Matching black & white paper contrast grade to the negative
Fine Art of Darkroom Dodging
Photography's Goal: a black and white print
The most important ingredient in any developer formula is the developing agent. Its job is to free metallic silver from the emulsion's crystals so it can form the black and white image. These crystals contain silver atoms combined with bromine atoms in the light-sensitive compound silver bromide. When struck by light during an exposure, the silver bromide crystals undergo a partial chemical change. The exposed crystals (forming the latent black and white image) provide the developing agent with a ready-made working site.
Photography's Goal: a black and white print, part 2
Black and white printing paper's palette of gray
Darkroom Prints: Moody Tints and Surface Brilliance
Roger Mertin – one of America's master black and white printmakers
Darkroom Tips: Fine Art of Developing Good Negatives
Some developing agents are used alone, but often two together have complementary properties, as can be seen in the black and white pictures of a bathtub in the top row on the opposite page. One combination is made of the compounds Metol and hydroquinone. If hydroquinone is omitted from the usual formula, the result is a loss of contrast as compared to a normal negative. If there is no Metol in the compound, the black and white image may fail to appear during the usual developing period.
Darkroom Tips: Fine Art of Developing Good Negatives, part 2
Darkroom equipment needed to develop roll black and white film
Darkroom Tips: Film Development Problems and How to Avoid Them
Darkroom Tips: How Developer Chemicals Affect a Black and white print
When developing begins, the action is sluggish, so an "accelerator" is undeveloped silver bromide crystals added; without it a negative comes out underdeveloped. Once started, though, the process goes so fast that unexposed areas are developed unless a "restrainer" is included; without it a negative is overdeveloped.
Darkroom Tips: What Fixer Does
Darkroom Tips: the importance of washing black and white film
Darkroom tips: film developing time: the crucial factor
Darkroom tips: how temperature affects B&W film development
For normally exposed black and white films of moderate or high speed, the best developer is one that will give normal contrast with moderate grain. Examples of these are Kodak D-76, Ilford ID-11 and Acutol. Finer grain can be obtained - but usually with some loss of contrast and black and white film speed - with such developers as Kodak Microdol-X or Ilford Microphen.
Darkroom tips: Agitation during black & white film development
Darkroom tips: emergency procedures during black & white film development
Alfred Stieglitz: Black and White Photography Artist